D3SFILA

DESARROLLO DE UN SISTEMA INTEGRAL Y EFICIENTE PARA FABRICACIÓN ADITIVA POR LÁSER CON APORTE DE HILO MULTIDIRECCIONAL
(IN852A 2018/78)

El objetivo principal del proyecto D3SFILA es el desarrollo de un sistema robusto y modular de aporte de hilo multidireccional para Fabricación Aditiva (FA) por Láser, que permita fabricar piezas complejas garantizando la robustez del proceso, independientemente del material y estrategia de deposición, así como la calidad metalúrgica de la pieza fabricada.

En este sentido, de todas las tecnologías de FA aplicables a metales, la deposición en lecho de polvo con láser es la que ha experimentado un mayor grado de implementación industrial en los últimos años, principalmente porque permite fabricar piezas con geometría y diseños difícilmente alcanzables por métodos tradicionales de fabricación, con una gran precisión geométrica y en un entorno controlado. No obstante, presenta limitaciones relevantes, tales como el tamaño de pieza a fabricar y la muy baja velocidad de procesado, que hacen que las tecnologías de Fabricación Aditiva por Deposición Directa de Energía (FADDE), y en particular la fabricación aditiva por láser con aporte de hilo (WLAM_Wire Laser Additive Manufacturing) le vayan ganando terreno, en especial en la fabricación de piezas de tamaño medio-grande, apoyadas en gran medida por el sector aeronáutico.

El proyecto D3SFILA surge de la oportunidad de negocio detectada en el campo de la Fabricación Aditiva y, en particular, en la fabricación de componentes de alto valor añadido y de tamaño medio-grande para diferentes sectores industriales mediante la técnica WLAM.

En la actualidad existen únicamente dos fabricantes de cabezales láser que ofrecen equipamiento específico para FA por láser con aporte de hilo. En ambos casos se trata de cabezales coaxiales multidireccionales que permiten depositar material en cualquier dirección de procesado, lo que supone una gran ventaja a la hora de aumentar la flexibilidad en la fabricación de piezas. No obstante, se trata de cabezales muy complejos desde el punto vista óptico. Esta complejidad exige trabajar con fuentes láser de media-alta calidad de haz y deriva en un coste considerablemente alto del cabezal, encareciendo el proceso y la flexibilidad de aplicación.

En el marco del proyecto se abordarán los siguientes retos tecnológicos:

  • El desarrollo de un sistema de aportación integrado, el cual tiene como objetivo asegurar la viabilidad del proceso de fabricación láser con aporte de hilo mediante un sistema robusto, compacto y de coste reducido. El sistema de aportación desarrollado en el proyecto D3SFILA permitirá fabricar piezas mediante movimientos multidireccionales, con mayor tasa de aportación que los cabezales coaxiales actuales. Además, se desarrollará también un sistema de difusión gaseosa que permitirá mantener el flujo de gas independientemente de la dirección de procesado, además de controlar el enfriamiento de la zona solidificada para mantener sus propiedades y evitar oxidación.
  • El desarrollo de estrategias de fabricación óptimas de deposición de hilo implementadas en la programación offline de procesos WLAM.
  • La validación de los dos desarrollos anteriores mediante la fabricación de tres demostradores definidos por dos empresas del consorcio.

 

FINANCIACIÓN DEL PROYECTO

El proyecto D3SFILA, enmarcado en el programa CONECTAPEME 2018, está financiado por la Xunta de Galicia a través de la Axencia Galega de Innovación (GAIN) y el apoyo de la Consellería de Economía, Emprego e Industria y está cofinanciado con cargo a Fondos FEDER en el marco del eje 1 del programa operativo Feder Galicia 2014-2020.

 

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